奥巴马在悼念纳尔逊∙曼德拉的仪式上的讲话

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奥巴马在悼念纳尔逊曼德拉的仪式上的讲话 (中英对照)

Thank you.  (Applause.)  Thank you so much.  Thank you.  To Graça Machel and the Mandela family; to President Zuma and members of the government; to heads of states and government, past and present; distinguished guests -- it is a singular honor to be with you today, to celebrate a life like no other.  To the people of South Africa -- (applause) -- people of every race and walk of life -- the world thanks you for sharing Nelson Mandela with us.  His struggle was your struggle.  His triumph was your triumph.  Your dignity and your hope found expression in his life.  And your freedom, your democracy is his cherished legacy.

 

谢谢!(掌声)多谢诸位!谢谢你们!格拉萨·马谢尔及曼德拉的家人;祖马(Zuma)总统和政府成员;各国历任和现任国家元首和政府首脑;尊敬的来宾们—今天与你们在一起,赞颂这独异于人的一生,是一种至高无上的荣耀。南非人民——(掌声)——各族裔和各行各业的人民——全世界感谢你们与我们共同受惠于纳尔逊曼德拉。他进行的斗争就是你们的斗争。他的胜利就是你们的胜利。你们的尊严和你们的希望在他的一生中得到体现。你们的自由、你们的民主,是他宝贵的遗产。

 

It is hard to eulogize any man -- to capture in words not just the facts and the dates that make a life, but the essential truth of a person -- their private joys and sorrows; the quiet moments and unique qualities that illuminate someone’s soul.  How much harder to do so for a giant of history, who moved a nation toward justice, and in the process moved billions around the world.

 

概括任何人的生死荣辱都很难做到言至意达,——借助于言词,不仅罗列一生的事实和日期,而且需要揭示一个人的内心深处——他们个人的欢乐和悲伤;静默的时刻和照亮某些人灵魂的独特品质。对于名垂史册的一位伟人,曾率领一个国家追求正义,并且在这个过程中感动了全世界亿万民众,历数这一生的尊荣尤为不易。

 

Born during World War I, far from the corridors of power, a boy raised herding cattle and tutored by the elders of his Thembu tribe, Madiba would emerge as the last great liberator of the 20th century.  Like Gandhi, he would lead a resistance movement -- a movement that at its start had little prospect for success.  Like Dr. King, he would give potent voice to the claims of the oppressed and the moral necessity of racial justice.  He would endure a brutal imprisonment that began in the time of Kennedy and Khrushchev, and reached the final days of the Cold War.  Emerging from prison, without the force of arms, he would -- like Abraham Lincoln -- hold his country together when it threatened to break apart.  And like America’s Founding Fathers, he would erect a constitutional order to preserve freedom for future generations -- a commitment to democracy and rule of law ratified not only by his election, but by his willingness to step down from power after only one term.

 

“马迪巴”出生在第一次世界大战期间,远离权豪势要,儿时靠放牛维生,接受腾布部落长者的教诲,日后成为20世纪最后一位伟大的解放者。他与甘地一样,后来成为抵抗运动的领导人—最初很少有成功希望的一场运动。 他与金博士一样,使被压迫者的诉求得到强有力的声张,为种族正义的道义使命发出了强大的声音。他经历了残酷的监禁,在肯尼迪和赫鲁晓夫时期开始身陷囹圄,直到冷战结束之时。出狱后,他在没有军队的情况下——与亚伯拉罕•林肯一样,在国家即将分裂之际维护了国家的完整。他与美国的开国元勋一样,为了保持今后世世代代的自由建立了宪法秩序——坚持民主和法治,不仅因为他的当选,而且也因为他愿意在完成一个任期后放弃权力。

 

Given the sweep of his life, the scope of his accomplishments, the adoration that he so rightly earned, it’s tempting I think to remember Nelson Mandela as an icon, smiling and serene, detached from the tawdry affairs of lesser men.  But Madiba himself strongly resisted such a lifeless portrait.  (Applause.)  Instead, Madiba insisted on sharing with us his doubts and his fears; his miscalculations along with his victories.  “I am not a saint,” he said, “unless you think of a saint as a sinner who keeps on trying.”

 

纵观他的一生,回顾他取得的一切成就、他当之无愧获得的敬仰,我认为可以说纳尔逊曼德拉是一位彪炳青史的人物,人们应该缅怀千载。他笑容可掬,面目安详,具有常人不具备的超尘拔俗的气质。然而,“马迪巴”本人强烈抵制这种刻板的形象。(掌声)相反,“马迪巴”坚持要我们知道他的疑惑和恐惧,了解他在走向胜利的道路上做出了哪些错误的估计。“我不是圣人,”他如是说,“除非你们认为圣人也会犯错,也需要不断尝试。”

 

It was precisely because he could admit to imperfection -- because he could be so full of good humor, even mischief, despite the heavy burdens he carried -- that we loved him so.  He was not a bust made of marble; he was a man of flesh and blood -- a son and a husband, a father and a friend.  And that’s why we learned so much from him, and that’s why we can learn from him still.  For nothing he achieved was inevitable.  In the arc of his life, we see a man who earned his place in history through struggle and shrewdness, and persistence and faith.  He tells us what is possible not just in the pages of history books, but in our own lives as well.

 

正是因为他承认不完美——因为他为人如此和蔼可亲,甚至还有些诙谐,尽管他经历了诸多的重负-- 我们才如此喜欢他。他不是大理石制作的雕像;他是有血有肉的人——儿子和丈夫,父亲和朋友。正因为如此,我们从他身上学到了很多东西。正因为如此,我们始终可以向他学习。他取得的成就没有一样是必然的结果。我们从他的一生中看到,他奋勇斗争,殚智竭虑,坚韧不拔,坚持信念,在历史上赢得了自己的地位。他告诫我们什么是可能做到的,不仅可以载入史册,而且在我们自己的生活中得到体现。

 

Mandela showed us the power of action; of taking risks on behalf of our ideals.  Perhaps Madiba was right that he inherited, “a proud rebelliousness, a stubborn sense of fairness” from his father.  And we know he shared with millions of black and colored South Africans the anger born of, “a thousand slights, a thousand indignities, a thousand unremembered moments…a desire to fight the system that imprisoned my people,” he said.

 

 

曼德拉向我们展示了行动的力量;为了我们的理想甘冒风险的力量。“马迪巴”也许是对的,他从他父亲那里继承了“一种骄傲不羁的叛逆精神,一种顽强执着的公平信念”。我们还知道,他同千百万南非黑人和有色人种共同怀有一种愤怒,他曾说,这种愤怒产生于“一千次轻蔑、一千次屈辱、一千个已被遗忘的时刻……一种与禁锢我的人民的制度抗争的渴望”。

 

But like other early giants of the ANC -- the Sisulus and Tambos -- Madiba disciplined his anger and channeled his desire to fight into organization, and platforms, and strategies for action, so men and women could stand up for their God-given dignity.  Moreover, he accepted the consequences of his actions, knowing that standing up to powerful interests and injustice carries a price.  “I have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination.  I’ve cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and [with] equal opportunities.  It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve.  But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”  (Applause.)

 

同非洲人国民大会的其他早期伟人一样——如希苏拉斯和塔姆伯斯——“马迪巴”以自律来约束自己的愤怒,将自己的渴望融入为采取行动而确立组织、平台和战略的斗争中,以使男女民众能够奋起捍卫他们的天赐尊严。此外,他还接受了他所采取的行动带来的后果,知道与权势和不公抗争是要付出代价的。“我曾为反对白人统治而斗争,也曾为反对黑人统治而斗争。我一直珍藏着一个民主、自由的社会的理想,让所有人都生活在一个和谐共处、机会均等的社会中。我希望为这个理想而生并将其付诸实现。但是,如果需要,我也愿为这样一个理想献出生命。”(掌声)

 

Mandela taught us the power of action, but he also taught us the power of ideas; the importance of reason and arguments; the need to study not only those who you agree with, but also those who you don’t agree with.  He understood that ideas cannot be contained by prison walls, or extinguished by a sniper’s bullet.  He turned his trial into an indictment of apartheid because of his eloquence and his passion, but also because of his training as an advocate.  He used decades in prison to sharpen his arguments, but also to spread his thirst for knowledge to others in the movement.  And he learned the language and the customs of his oppressor so that one day he might better convey to them how their own freedom depend upon his.  (Applause.)

 

曼德拉让我们懂得了行动的力量;他也让我们懂得了理念的力量,理性和辩论的重要性,以及不仅应当研究你所赞同的、也应当研究你并不赞同的。他深知,理念不会被监狱的高墙阻挡,也不会被冷枪手的子弹扼杀。由于他滔滔雄辩、激情澎湃,也由于他身为一名倡导者的经验丰富,他将对他的审判变成了对种族隔离的控诉。他利用几十年的狱中时光来使自己的论点更加尖锐,但也用自己对知识的渴求来感染这场运动中的其他人士。他还学会了压迫他的那些人的语言和习俗,以便有一天能更好地向他们说明他们自身的自由如何取决于他的自由。(掌声)

 

Mandela demonstrated that action and ideas are not enough.  No matter how right, they must be chiseled into law and institutions.  He was practical, testing his beliefs against the hard surface of circumstance and history.  On core principles he was unyielding, which is why he could rebuff offers of unconditional release, reminding the Apartheid regime that “prisoners cannot enter into contracts.”

 

曼德拉表明了只有行动和理念还不够。它们不论多么正确,都必须被铭刻在法律和机制之中。他是务实的,让自己的信念接受现实和历史的严峻考验。他在核心原则上坚定不移,正是因为这样,他能够断然拒绝无条件释放的伎俩,提醒种族隔离政权别忘了“囚犯无权签署合同”。

 

 But as he showed in painstaking negotiations to transfer power and draft new laws, he was not afraid to compromise for the sake of a larger goal.  And because he was not only a leader of a movement but a skillful politician, the Constitution that emerged was worthy of this multiracial democracy, true to his vision of laws that protect minority as well as majority rights, and the precious freedoms of every South African.

 

然而,正如他在殚精竭虑地进行谈判以移交权力并起草新法律的过程中所展示的,为了一个更宏大的目标他不惧怕妥协。由于他不仅是一场运动的领导人,而且是一位娴熟的政治家,最终产生的宪法无愧于这个多种族的民主制度,忠实于他对既保护少数人权利也保护多数人权利的法律的构想以及每个南非人的宝贵自由。

 

And finally, Mandela understood the ties that bind the human spirit.  There is a word in South Africa -- Ubuntu -- (applause) -- a word that captures Mandela’s greatest gift:  his recognition that we are all bound together in ways that are invisible to the eye; that there is a oneness to humanity; that we achieve ourselves by sharing ourselves with others, and caring for those around us.

 

最后,曼德拉理解聚合人类精神的纽带。南非有一个词——乌班图(Ubuntu)——(掌声)——这个词抓住了曼德拉最了不起的才能:他认识到我们所有人都以肉眼看不到的方式息息相连,人类有一种同一性,我们通过与他人分享自己及关爱我们身边的人来成就自己。

 

We can never know how much of this sense was innate in him, or how much was shaped in a dark and solitary cell.  But we remember the gestures, large and small -- introducing his jailers as honored guests at his inauguration; taking a pitch in a Springbok uniform; turning his family’s heartbreak into a call to confront HIV/AIDS -- that revealed the depth of his empathy and his understanding.  He not only embodied Ubuntu, he taught millions to find that truth within themselves.

 

我们永远不会知道他的这种认知有多少是与生俱来的,有多少是在一间黑暗的单人牢房中形成的。但我们记得大大小小的种种表现——他在就职典礼上将他的看守尊为贵宾;他穿上斯普林博克队的球衣投球;他将痛失亲人的悲伤化作防治艾滋病病毒/艾滋病的呼吁——这显示了他深切的同情心以及他深刻的认知。他不仅体现了“乌班图”,而且教导千百万人寻求他们内心深处的那个真理。

 

It took a man like Madiba to free not just the prisoner, but the jailer as well -- (applause) -- to show that you must trust others so that they may trust you; to teach that reconciliation is not a matter of ignoring a cruel past, but a means of confronting it with inclusion and generosity and truth.  He changed laws, but he also changed hearts.

 

只有像“马迪巴”这样的伟人才能让囚犯和看守同获自由——(掌声)——显示出必须信任别人,别人才可能信任你;教导人们和解并不是无视一段残酷的历史,而是一种以包容各方、慷慨大度和恪守真理来面对这段历史的方式。他不仅改变了法律,而且感化了人心。

 

For the people of South Africa, for those he inspired around the globe, Madiba’s passing is rightly a time of mourning, and a time to celebrate a heroic life.  But I believe it should also prompt in each of us a time for self-reflection.  With honesty, regardless of our station or our circumstance, we must ask:  How well have I applied his lessons in my own life?  It’s a question I ask myself, as a man and as a President.

 

对于南非人民,对于他所激励的全球各地的人们,“马迪巴”的辞世的确是一个悼念的时刻,也是一个颂扬他的英雄生平的时刻。而我相信,它还应当是一个促使我们每个人自省的时刻。不论我们的地位或处境如何,我们都必须扪心自问:我在自己的生活中是如何践行他的教诲的?这正是我身为一个普通人和一位总统,向自己提出的问题。

 

We know that, like South Africa, the United States had to overcome centuries of racial subjugation.  As was true here, it took sacrifice -- the sacrifice of countless people, known and unknown, to see the dawn of a new day.  Michelle and I are beneficiaries of that struggle.  (Applause.)  But in America, and in South Africa, and in countries all around the globe, we cannot allow our progress to cloud the fact that our work is not yet done.

 

我们知道,正如南非一样,美国也是经过数百年才消除了种族压迫。也正如这里一样,它是以牺牲为代价——在新的一天曙光来临之前,无数知名和不知名的人做出了牺牲。米歇尔和我是这场斗争的受益者。(掌声)但是在美国、在南非、在世界上所有的国家,我们都不能因为已经取得的进步而无视我们的事业尚未完成这一事实。

 

The struggles that follow the victory of formal equality or universal franchise may not be as filled with drama and moral clarity as those that came before, but they are no less important.  For around the world today, we still see children suffering from hunger and disease.  We still see run-down schools.  We still see young people without prospects for the future.  Around the world today, men and women are still imprisoned for their political beliefs, and are still persecuted for what they look like, and how they worship, and who they love.  That is happening today.  (Applause.)

 

在追求正式平等或普选权利方面取得胜利之后,这场斗争可能不像过去那样惊心动魄,其道义也不像过去那样泾渭分明,但其重要性并没有丝毫减弱。因为,今天在世界上许多地方,我们仍然看到孩子们遭受饥饿和病痛,我们仍然看到破旧的学校,我们仍然看到年轻人没有光明的未来。今天,在世界上许多地方,人们仍然由于其政治信念而被投入监狱,仍然由于他们的外貌、他们的宗教信仰和他们的性爱选择而受到迫害。这种情况在今天仍然继续发生。(掌声)

 

And so we, too, must act on behalf of justice.  We, too, must act on behalf of peace.  There are too many people who happily embrace Madiba’s legacy of racial reconciliation, but passionately resist even modest reforms that would challenge chronic poverty and growing inequality.  There are too many leaders who claim solidarity with Madiba’s struggle for freedom, but do not tolerate dissent from their own people.  (Applause.)  And there are too many of us on the sidelines, comfortable in complacency or cynicism when our voices must be heard.

 

因此,我们也必须秉持正义。我们也必须维护和平。有太多的人欣然接受“马迪巴”的种族和解遗产,却热衷于抵制最温和的旨在减少长期贫困和日益增大的贫富差距的改革措施。有太多的领导人声称支持“马迪巴”争取自由的斗争,却容不得本国人民有不同意见。(掌声)当我们必须发出声音的时候,我们中间有太多人袖手旁观、自满自得或无动于衷。

 

The questions we face today -- how to promote equality and justice; how to uphold freedom and human rights; how to end conflict and sectarian war -- these things do not have easy answers.  But there were no easy answers in front of that child born in World War I.  Nelson Mandela reminds us that it always seems impossible until it is done.  South Africa shows that is true.  South Africa shows we can change, that we can choose a world defined not by our differences, but by our common hopes.  We can choose a world defined not by conflict, but by peace and justice and opportunity.

 

我们今天面临的问题——如何促进平等和正义、如何支持自由和人权、如何制止冲突和派系战争——并没有简单的答案。但是,对于那个出生于一次世界大战期间的孩子而言也没有简单的答案。纳尔逊·曼德拉提醒我们,一项事业在成功之前往往看起来希望渺茫。南非证实了这一点。南非表明,我们能够推动变革,我们能够选择一个由我们的共同希望而不是相互差异所主导的世界。我们能够选择一个由和平、正义和机会而不是冲突所主导的世界。

 

We will never see the likes of Nelson Mandela again.  But let me say to the young people of Africa and the young people around the world -- you, too, can make his life’s work your own.  Over 30 years ago, while still a student, I learned of Nelson Mandela and the struggles taking place in this beautiful land, and it stirred something in me.  It woke me up to my responsibilities to others and to myself, and it set me on an improbable journey that finds me here today.  And while I will always fall short of Madiba’s example, he makes me want to be a better man.  (Applause.)  He speaks to what’s best inside us.

 

我们不会再看到纳尔逊·曼德拉这样的伟人。但是,我要对非洲的年轻人和全世界的年轻人说:你们也能够把他毕生的事业化作自己的事业。三十多年前,当我还是一名学生的时候,我了解到纳尔逊·曼德拉以及在这片美丽的土地上正在进行的斗争,它深深地触动了我。它唤醒了我对他人和自己的责任感,它使我踏上了一个看似毫无希望的旅程,而这个旅程在今天把我带到这里。虽然我永远不可能与“马迪巴”比肩,但他激励着我不断自新。(掌声)他唤醒了我们内心最美好的愿望。

 

After this great liberator is laid to rest, and when we have returned to our cities and villages and rejoined our daily routines, let us search for his strength.  Let us search for his largeness of spirit somewhere inside of ourselves.  And when the night grows dark, when injustice weighs heavy on our hearts, when our best-laid plans seem beyond our reach, let us think of Madiba and the words that brought him comfort within the four walls of his cell:  “It matters not how strait the gate, how charged with punishments the scroll, I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul.”

 

在这位伟大的解放者进入长眠之后,当我们返回各自的城市与村庄和我们的日常工作之时,让我们去发现他的力量,让我们从自己内心深处去发现他博大宽厚的精神。当夜幕降临,当非正义沉重地压在我们的心头,当我们精心制定的计划似乎永不可能实现,让我们想起“马迪巴”以及身陷囹圄时给他带来安慰的诗句:“尽管大门又紧又窄,尽管难逃重重磨难,我主宰着自己的命运:我是自己灵魂的船长。”

 

What a magnificent soul it was.  We will miss him deeply.  May God bless the memory of Nelson Mandela.  May God bless the people of South Africa.  (Applause.)

 

这是多么伟大的灵魂。我们将深深地怀念他。愿上帝保佑纳尔逊•曼德拉的记忆。愿上帝保佑南非人民。(掌声)


 
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